A small Wisconsin town took the name of a Seminole Indian Chief, but chooses myth over history to portray him

Osceola, painted by George Catlin. (Image: Wikipedia.)

My wife, I and two friends traveled to Osceola, Wisconsin last weekend to take 90-minute train ride to enjoy the fall colors.

The eye-opener for me was the “Chief Osceola” statue in the center of the town of about 2,500 that still seems stuck in the 1950s.

The statue has the stereotypical Plains Indian look, a half-naked man with an eagle-feather headdress, nothing like what Osceola actually looked like. It’s more town mascot than honoring the town’s namesake.

I’ll admit that there are many more pressing issues for indigenous peoples than one more offensive statue. There’s the loss of traditional indigenous languages, environmental threats to wild rice, homelessness, crude oil pipelines and more.

I still feel compelled to write about the statue and how it’s interpreted.

Chief Osceola statue in Osceola, Wisc.

Born in Alabama, Osceola was Creek on his mother’s side. Following the Creek Wars, he moved to Florida and became part of the Seminole nation.

Osceola was one of leaders in the Second Seminole War. He fought against the forced removal of his people to lands west of the Mississippi, the goal of President Jackson’s Indian Removal Act.

Counties in Florida, Iowa and Michigan adopted Osceola as a namesake, as well as many other communities.

The naming of Osceola, Wisconsin has an extra twist. The interpretive sign behind Chief Osceola tells the following story.

William Kent “settled” in present-day Osceola in 1844. Kent wanted  lumber to build ship masts. He put down roots at a spot near a waterfall that could power a lumber mill.

The town’s first name was Leroy, “in honor of Leroy Hubbard, the first white man to die here,” the sign said. The town’s name later “changed to Osceola Mills and finally around 1900 to Osceola after an Indian Chief and the first boat built in the St. Croix Valley.”

So the town was named after a boat that was named after Osceola, “an Indian Chief.”

St. Croix Scenic Byway wayfinding map.

The St. Croix River Scenic Byway wayfinding map for local trails uses the Chief Osceola statue as the major landmark. There seems to be no awareness that this is both historically inaccurate and offensive.

Right next door to the statue is Sodie’s Cigars. Inside the store is a small cigar store Indian.

Such statues started appearing in colonial times, a form of advertising for a generally illiterate public. Just as barbers used red-and-white polls to advertise their services, tobacco stores used wooden Indians. Indians introduced Europeans to tobacco.

Many people find such statues offensive for their racial stereotyping; others will pay thousands of dollars for them.

Inside Sodie’s Cigar Store.

Osceola’s interpretive signs make no mention of the real Chief Osceola or his story.

Here’s a piece of that history from Wikipedia:

Following the Second Seminole War, Osceola and 81 of his followers were captured by order of General Thomas Jesup, under a white flag of truce.

Osceola’s capture by deceit caused a national uproar. General Jesup’s treacherous act and the administration were condemned by many congressional leaders and vilified by international press. Jesup suffered a loss of reputation that lasted for the rest of his life; his betrayal of the truce flag has been described as “one of the most disgraceful acts in American military history.”

Osceola died three months after his capture.

For more background, the town of Osceola is located on lands originally inhabited by the Dakota, who were later displaced by the Ojibwe (or Anishinaabe). The Ojibwe ceded large tracts of land to the U.S. government in 1837; that treaty included lands that would soon become the town of Osceola. The Ojibwe retain rights under the treaty to continue to use the ceded land for hunting, fishing and other purposes.

There are 11 federally recognized Native nations in Wisconsin.

4 thoughts on “A small Wisconsin town took the name of a Seminole Indian Chief, but chooses myth over history to portray him

  1. I so appreciate the straightforwardness and clarity of this reporting. I am so sad to hear about the real Osceola’s history, and after reading this, seeing the statue makes me a little sick. This reporting is so important to further healing, I think. I keep wondering how to get it to a larger audience.


  2. the Osceola chieftain was made from an old tree on river street. ceil was the woman’s name who had it carved by a gentleman with a chain saw and chisels. this was done a little over 30 years ago. she was an avid supporter of the Osceola chieftains high school sports teams and had it in her front yard for years. ceil then opened a little store on the main street and moved the chieftain near her little store and latter it was painted by a group of high school kids. the citizens of Osceola know this is not chief Osceola and was never meant to be. I guess my question is who was the Dakota tribes chief that was here first and were are they now.


  3. Before you criticize Osceola’s symbol recognize your web title contains the words Native American. The majority of tribal members prefer American Indian followed by the name of the tribe the member is from.


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