On this day in history, March 11, 1824, Secretary of War John C. Calhoun created the Office of Indian Affairs, which would later be renamed the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). Calhoun, who also served as a U.S. Senator from South Carolina, is the namesake of Lake Calhoun in Minneapolis. According to Wikipedia:
[The Office of Indian Affairs] became responsible for negotiating treaties and enforcing conditions, at least for Native Americans. In 1849 the bureau was transferred to the Department of the Interior as so many of its responsibilities were related to the holding and disposition of large land assets.
A separate Wikipedia entry on Calhoun adds that Calhoun “supervised the negotiation and ratification of 38 treaties with Indian tribes.”
This Day in History: Ojibwe Cede Minnesota Land, the United States Defines What it Means to be an Ojibwe “Chief”
Also on this day in history, March 11, 1863, several Ojibwe bands signed a treaty with the United States. The TreatiesMatter.org website explains the details:
During the Dakota War of 1862, there was some dissension among the Ojibwe on which side to support: the Dakota, or the U.S. The Mille Lacs band unequivocally sided with the U.S., actively protecting white settlers and military installations. As a result, in their treaty with the U.S. in 1863, the Mille Lacs band became “unmovable,” securing their reservation against future legal maneuverings. …
The direct payments to individuals who signed the 1863 treaty were one aspect of a larger U.S. role in internal Ojibwe politics and life ways. The treaty also defined for the time in U.S. terms what an Ojibwe “chief” would be: a leader of a band of at least 50 people, who would encourage “the pursuits of civilized life,” A “board of visitors” representing Christian religious denominations would report to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs on the “qualifications and deportment of all persons residing upon the reservation.”
Click on the link above for more details.
New Exhibit Opens at All My Relations Gallery
Synthesis, the debut solo exhibition by artist Aza Erdrich, will open Friday, March 18, at All My Relations Gallery, 1414 East Franklin Ave. According to the announcement:
Erdrich shares works that pull from her life as a young woman of mixed Native and non-Native ancestry growing up in Minneapolis. She draws influence from Anishinaabe artistic traditions and personal experience to create uniquely coded works of self and familial narrative. Aza Erdrich is
The show is guest curated by Dyani Whitehawk. There is an opening reception on Friday the 18th from 5-8 p.m.
Grand Portage Band, state diverge on collaring moose
From MPR: Last year Gov. Mark Dayton ordered the state DNR to stop collaring moose, saying the stress of the research into the declining population was harmful to the animals. The Grand Portage Band of Chippewa came to a different conclusion. Click here for full story.